Legacy of Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott

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Rosa Parks challenged Jim Crow laws, igniting the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 and her legacy lives on.

Legacy of Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Rosa Parks on Bus

When Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to another bus rider, she set the nonviolent tone used by Martin Luther King in his nonviolent protest methods that left quite a legacy for both civil rights activists in their fight against Jim Crow laws. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, including the Woolworth Sit-ins and Freedom Riders, were modeled on the nonviolent style and tactics of Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King.

Learn more about Rosa Parks:

Rosa Parks: Black Womanhood, Rape & Lynching

Rosa Parks, Sojourner Truth and Ida B. Wells created a century-long movement (1850s-1950s) against Jim Crow laws that allowed rape and lynching of black women and girls.

 

Rosa Parks, 1960s Fashion and Civil Rights

Fashion in the 1960s is a memorable part of the Civil Rights Movement.


Before Rosa Parks, Sojourner Truth – Ain’t I A Woman?

Before Rosa Parks, Sojourner Truth, a former slave, became a women’s and civil rights activist during the era of Jim Crow laws.

So That All May Read Ann Richards

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Ann Richards, Texas Monthly

A free library service distributed upon request to Texans of all ages with disabilities who are registered to receive Talking Books, Spotlight on Texas is a biannual audio publication announcing the latest audio books produced by the Texas Talking Book Program at the Volunteer Recording Studio in Austin and the Recording Library for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in Midland, Texas.

First, we are Texans; second, we are women; we were both involved in Texas politics at one time; and fourth, books by or about us have been declared classics by the Texas Talking Book series of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, and included in the latest edition of Spotlight on exas. 

 The audio version of Thorny Rose of Texas: an Intimate Portrait of Governor Ann Richards (Carol Publishing Corporation) by Mike Shropshire and Frank Schaeffer is a biography of the sharp-tongued woman who stepped onto the national stage at the 1988 Democratic National Convention as keynote speaker and said of then Candidate George Herbert Walker Bush, “Poor George. He can’t help it. He was born with a silver foot in his mouth.”

I knew from the beginning that I liked Ann, not because of what she said about Mr. Bush because I liked him, too. I liked her because she said what we were thinking and thought ourselves too polite to say aloud. What she did in the end to lose the governor’s race to George W. Bush was to treat his candidacy against her without fear. She let some people around her convince her that she was so popular in Texas that she would crush him. But what she didn’t realize about him that the world has since learned is that he didn’t let people get away with insulting his father.

Born in poverty during the Great Depression, Richards attended Baylor University in Waco, Texas, where she became a star debater. Thorny Rose of Texas: an Intimate Portrait of Governor Ann Richards covers the personal, professional and political life of the legend who is Ann Richards, elected Governor of Texas in 1990 and defeated in 1994 by George W. Bush, son of the subject of her 1988 keynote speech. Ann Richards was the second female governor of Texas. The first was Miriam Ferguson, elected in 1924. Dorothy Ann Willis Richards, born in 1933, died in 2006.

Since 1978, Talking Book volunteers such as Linda Fox, who narrated Thorny Rose of Texas: an Intimate Portrait of Governor Ann Richards as well as Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s by Sunny Nash, have recorded thousands of books, both fiction and nonfiction by Texas authors or about Texas history, culture and people. The program also loans users of the services playback equipment needed to listen to recorded books and magazines.

My grandmother, Bigmama, didn’t shop at Woolworth’s because black shoppers and other shoppers of color were not welcome in many stores on the Main Streets of towns like Bryan, Texas in the 1950s and 1960s. “I know this to be true because I was there during the pre-civil rights era. I write about that time in my book, Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s (Texas A&M University Press). Bigmama and my family taught me to rise above it and do the best I could at whatever it was I was trying to do.

Nash’s memoir of growing up in the 1950s in the Jim Crow South goes beyond descriptions of segregation and hardships, but illustrates the love and warmth of her family and community and the faith they had in her to later attend Texas A&M University and attain professional heights none before her had achieved.

Working with the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped in Washington, DC, a program administered by the Library of Congress, the Talking Book Program provides free library services and audio books like Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s to more than 20,000 Texans per year who are unable to read printed books. Through individual services or institutions such as schools, nursing homes or hospitals, the Talking Book Program serves those with permanent or temporary visual, physical and learning impairments or disabilities that prevent them from reading standard printed books and magazines.

List of Sunny Nash Blog Posts

© 2011 Sunny Nash. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Terms for Use of Text & Image Include Link: http://sunnynash.blogspot.com/p/about-sunny-nash.html

Articles on the Woolworth’s Sit-ins

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Woolworth's Sit-ins, Greensboro, North Carolina

Four well-dressed black college freshmen, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, Ezell Blair, Jr. (later known as Jibreel Khazan), and David Richmond, from the traditionally black college, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, known as the Greensboro Four, challenged Jim Crow laws when they sat down at the segregated Woolworth’s lunch counter.

The young men asked politely to be served, sparking similar protests and racial demonstrations across the nation in the south and the north. These  young college freshmen, who had earned the deserving title of the Greensboro Four, were refused service at the lunch counter because Woolworth ‘s headquarters had decreed that the company policy was “to abide by local custom.” Local custom, of course, was Jim Crow custom.

The persistence of the Greensboro Four every day following that first day caused other students, including female and white students, to join them. As news spread over the nation, similar actions were repeated in other cities across America, bringing down the old Jim Crow laws  that represented segregation and overt discrimination against African Americans and other non-white people.

For more information on the Woolworth’s Sit-ins and topics related to this significant American historical era, read the following articles.

Race Relations in America, the Woolworth’s Sit-ins – Woolworth’s sit-ins by black and white college students to integrate lunch counters in Greensboro NC between in 1960 observed nonviolence from Rosa Parks, changing race relations in the Jim Crow South and across the nation.

Land Grants, Race Relations and Woolworth’sThe Greensboro Four who led the 1960 Woolworth’s sit-ins, were from a traditionally black college funded under the 1890 Morrill Land Grant College Act. This article shows you how to write search engine friendly web content to get free publicity for your book and to use your talents and interests–cooking, sports, music, history or other–to become an expert in your field and a public speaker on your topic.

Justin Morrill Land Grant College Acts, 1862 & 1890Justin Smith Morrill fought Jim Crow laws writing Land Grant College Acts of 1862 and 1890 to educate black and white students and, 100 years later, land grant college students protested Jim Crow laws by leading the Woolworth’s Sit-ins in Greensboro NC in 1960.

List of Sunny Nash Race Relations Blogger Posts

ABOUT SUNNY NASH

bigmama didn't shop at woolworths book

Bigmama Didn't Shop nAt Woolworth's by Sunny Nash

My book, Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s, began when I was writing columns for Hearst and Knight-Ridder Newspapers in the 1990s. The columns were comprised of stories from my childhood in the pre-civil rights Jim Crow South with my grandmother, Bigmama, my parents, relatives, friends, teachers and others in my life. I had no idea that these little vignettes would garner so much interest nationwide. But they did.

With that, a managing editor at Texas A&M University Press, Mary Lenn Dixon, saw the merit in compiling these stories into a book and approached me about creating a manuscript of selected articles for review and eventual publication. What a break! I agreed. And the book was born. When Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s came out, it was selected as a resource for understanding race relations in the United States by the Association of American University Presses. As a result, some authorities consider me a leading author on race relations, quoting me in articles and reference books, and including my work in anthologies.

 Listed in the Bibliographic Guide to Black Studies by the Schomburg Center in New York, Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s is also recommended for Native American collections by the Miami-Dade Public Library System in Florida. Because my family has deep roots in Comanche heritage, Native American collections have begun to use my book to look at the connections its makes between African American and Native American bloodlines and culture in the Central Texas region.

Robin Fruble of Southern California said, “Every white person in America should read this book (Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s)! Sunny Nash writes the story of her childhood without preaching or ranting but she made me realize for the first time just how much skin color changes how one experiences the world.  But, if your skin color is brown, it matters a great deal to a great number of people. I needed to learn that. Sunny Nash is a great teacher,” Fruble said.

© 2011 Sunny Nash. All Rights Reserved Worldwide. Terms for Use of Text & Images Include Link: www.sunnynash.blogspot.com

Articles on Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

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Rosa Parks Arrest Photo, Montgomery Bus Boycott

Rosa Parks Arrest Photo, Montgomery But Boycott

Rosa Parks, known as “the mother of the modern Civil Rights Movement,” sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott on December 1, 1955, and changed America.

Below are some links to articles I have written about Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott that will provide a wide range of background on the Civil Rights Movement, Jim Crow laws and lynching. Also included in these articles are books and films about the era to enrich your understanding of race relations in the Jim Crow South and the United States.

Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott & Jim Crow – Rosa Parks challenged Jim Crow laws, igniting the Montgomery Bus Boycott, when she refused to give up her seat to another bus rider and set the nonviolent tone for the Woolworth’s sit-ins four years later.

Rosa Parks – Life Behind the Legend – Rosa Parks started the Montgomery Bus Boycott to free Alabama citizens of segregated bus seating and to show the nation how to overcome the tragedy that slavery left behind. Angela Bassett becomes Rosa Parks in her portrayal of the legendary civil rights heroine.

Rosa Parks & Race Relations in Early Hollywood – Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, affected race relations in America and early Hollywood, in that, studios had to change with the new racial climate that had relegated black actors to servants’ roles and mirrored pre-civil rights America.

New Sunny Nash Articles Related to this Post

Jim Crow Law and Rosa Parks: A Brief History

Great Mothering in Jim Crow’s World

Other Related Articles by Sunny Nash

Rosa Parks, Montgomery Bus Boycott & Jim Crow – Rosa Parks challenged Jim Crow laws, igniting the Montgomery Bus Boycott, when she refused to give up her seat to another bus rider and set the nonviolent tone for the Woolworth’s sit-ins four years later.

Rosa Parks, Jim Crow and Young Black Hollywood Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, affected race relations in America and early Hollywood, in that, studios had to change with the new racial climate that had relegated black actors to servants’ roles and mirrored pre-civil rights America.

Rosa Parks – Life Behind the Legend in the Jim Crow South In The Rosa Parks Story Angela Bassett becomes Rosa Parks in a portrayal of the legendary civil rights heroine that seems more real than performance. The article covers aspects of Rosa Parks’ life and the Montgomery Bus Boycott with photographs and videos.

Race Relations in America, the Woolworth’s Sit-ins Woolworth’s sit-ins by black and white college students in Greensboro NC between February and July 1960 integrated lunch counters cross the nation.

List of Sunny Nash Race Relations Blogger Posts

Bigmama Didn't Shop At Woolworth's by Sunny Nash

Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s by Sunny Nash

Sunny Nash is the author of Bigmama Didn’t’t Shop At Woolworth’s, chosen by the Association of American University Presses as essential for understanding race relations in the United States, listed in the Bibliographic Guide to Black Studies by the Schomburg Center in New York and recommended for Native American collections by the Miami-Dade Public Library System in Florida. Nash has work in the African American National Biography by Harvard and Oxford; African-American West, Century of Short Stories; Reflections in Black, History of Black Photographers 1840 – Present; Ancestry; Companion to Southern Literature; Texas Through Women’s Eyes; Black Genesis: A Resource Book for African-American Genealogy; African American Foodways; Southwestern American Literature Journal; The Source: guidebook to American genealogy; Interdisciplinary Journal for Germanic Linguistics; Ebony Magazine; Hidden Sources: Family History in Unlikely Places; and others.

© 2011 Sunny Nash. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.

www.sunnynash.blogspot.com

~Be sure to visit my Website: www.sunnynash.com Thank You~

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